Monday, May 25, 2020

The Terrorist Attacks Of 9 / 11 - 1645 Words

Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the United States (US) government has focused on terrorism as the biggest threat to stability and national security in the homeland. There have been controversial laws enacted which tested an individual’s Constitutional rights versus the security of the country as a whole, military engagements in foreign countries designed to stop terrorism overseas before reaching the homeland, and a number of law enforcement and government initiatives implemented to identify and investigate terrorists before they commit acts of terrorism or pursue material support activities in support of terrorism. Federal law enforcement agencies have been criticized recently for failing to predict when homegrown violent extremists†¦show more content†¦This integration of FEMA into the DHS was more than just window dressing because this allowed true integration between other DHS units. Prior to 9/11 and when FEMA was an independent agency, the traditional Emerg ency Management system focused on four mission areas; preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation (Gerber, 2016). After integrating into DHS, the Emergency Management system focused on the traditional four mission areas and added protection as the fifth mission area (Gerber, 2016). In 2003, these five mission areas were incorporated into Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) – 8 and provided authority for the development of the National Preparedness Goal and, for the first time, defined â€Å"first responders† and their role in the early stages of an incident (Office of the Press Secretary, 2003). These are key points in how the Federal Government took a strong leadership role and provided guidance on how public safety entities would prepare and respond to threat incidents in a post-9/11 US. Any government policy or law must evolve and grow with experience, research, practical application, and understanding. HSPD-8 was no exception and was replaced by then-President Obama with PPD-8 in 2011, which renewed the fundamental purposes of HSPD-8 and priority attention was given to preparedness (Palin, 2011). Another key understanding learned from the previous ten years was the importance of public-private partnerships, andShow MoreRelatedThe Terrorist Attack on 9/11641 Words   |  3 PagesThe terrorist attack on September 9, 2001, known as 9/11, was the most devastating terrorist attack to date, due to the high death toll, the suspected secondary explosion found in the Twin Towers, and the explosion at the Pentagon. In order to learn about the 9/11 Terrorist Attack, one must learn more about what happened. On September 9, 2001, at 7:59 am, The American Airlines Flight 11 took off from Boston Logan Airport with 92 people onboard. At 8:14 am, the United Airlines Flight 175 took offRead MoreThe Terrorist Attack 9 / 11 Essay1668 Words   |  7 PagesMultiple groups and civilians have responded to the terrorist attack 9/11 in different ways, having different viewpoints, values, and ideologies. George W.Bush who was the President of the United States of America at the time of the 9/11 terrorist attacks was against what occurred. George W.Bush talks about the incident as being a monumental day in our nations history, and how he went from being a â€Å"President primarily focused on domestic issues to a war time President†, something he never anticipatedRead MoreThe Terrorist Attacks On 9 / 112048 Words   |  9 PagesAbstract The terrorist attacks on 9/11 made a great impact on our nation both economically and psychologically. This paper reviews the findings of some of the research that has been done since this tragic event. A big topic is the initial response our government had after the attack. This includes local, state and federal government. Many new emergency response protocols have been put in place based on the rescue efforts that took place that day. It took the lives of many for our country to understandRead MoreThe 9 / 11 Terrorist Attack891 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The 9/11 terrorist attack is known as the worst in American History. A normal day on September 11th, 2001, nineteen terrorist from the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda prepared to hijack four planes. Two planes were flown into New York City hitting the towers of the World Trade Center. A third plane flew just right outside of Washington, D.C hitting the Pentagon. The last plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. All attackers got on to the planes safely and were prepared to takeRead MoreThe 9 / 11 Terrorist Attacks1816 Words   |  8 Pagesthere is so much to choose from. One of the most recent and most tragic events in American history were the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Hundreds of lives were lost, leading to extreme reformation of the United States surveillance and homeland security systems. The 9/11 terrorist attack was an important event in America’s history that has had lasting effects on American society. On September 11, 2001, four planes were hijacked by 19 Arab Islamist extremists and used as weapons of mass destruction. TheRead MoreThe Terrorist Attacks of 9/11591 Words   |  2 PagesThe tragic events of September 11, 2001 highlighted the vulnerability to terrorist attacks. The importance of critical infrastructures to the government, people, and organization can be dependent on the vulnerability towards a national disasters, manmade hazards, and terrorist attack. Contemporary standard of what constitutes critical infrastructures has evolved as a wide array of threats has increased in modern times. Critical infrastructures represent aspects of the economy that makes the nationRead MoreThe Terrorist Attacks On 9 / 11 Essay1913 Words   |  8 PagesInstitution: Thesis Statement Since the terrorist attacks on 9/11, America has been on edge about the topic of terrorism. Groups like Al-Qaeda, Hamas, Taliban, and now more recently, ISIS, has kept the world cautious of their every next move. Looking more closely into how these groups are formed and operate could help us better understand how they can be stopped. Studying the history of terrorist organizations can help us better predict the future of terrorist organizations. Introduction TerrorismRead MoreThe Terrorist Attack Of 9 / 11 Essay2059 Words   |  9 PagesThe terrorist attack of 9/11 is one of the most devastating tragedies in the history of U.S. On the one hand, it filled American’s heart with an invariable amount of terror, but at the same time Arab Americans and Muslims were prejudicially challenged and discriminated at economic, social, and educational level. Up to a certain extent, America is a racially prejudiced country but that is just not limited to Arab American society. It includes Blacks, Italians, and Chinese with the addition of thoseRead MoreThe Roots of the Terrorist Attacks of 9/111175 Words   |  5 Pagesthe 9/11 terrorist attacks are rooted deeper than most Americans realize. The trail of historical events that led to this catastrophe are widely unknown. Many Americans believe that the war on terror began with the tragedy of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and ended with the death of Osama Bin Laden, but in reality, the war on terror has a long and complicated history. This paper will explore the historical events that culminated in the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001Read MoreThe Terrorist Attacks And The Aftermath Of 9 / 111037 Words   |  5 PagesTo inform my audience of the four different terrorist attacks and the aftermath of 9/11. Central Idea: On September 11, 2001 the U.S was attacked by a series of four terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda in New York City, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Introduction â€Å"Freedom itself was attacked this morning by a faceless coward, and freedom will be defended.† This is a well known quote said by former U.S president, George W. Bush right after the 9/11 attacks and would soon be heard all around the world

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Essay on Noras Decision in Henrik Ibsen’s Play A Doll’s...

Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House, illustrates the primary ideals of motherhood through protagonist Nora Helmer, who desires independence separate from her stifled 19th century lifestyle. Likewise, her decision to walk out on her husband and three small children is seen as a very controversial and scandalous act during this time period. Nora’s crisis emerges from her lack of a maternal figure during her childhood, her previous connotations of men, and ultimately her choice to abandon her loved ones for an independence all her own. Throughout Nora’s childhood, she consistently lacked a maternal figure. This is a key development in her crisis because a maternal figure is thought to provide the basis for future healthy relationships.†¦show more content†¦NORA: Goodbye, Torvald. I won’t see my children. I know they’re in better hands than mine. The woman I am now would be no use to them . . . there, now it’s all over. I’ve put the keys here. The maids know all about running the house, much better than I do (117-118). This passage illustrates Nora’s independence blossoming from her newfound lifestyle, and it is evident that she feels there to be no place for either a husband, or three young children in her new identity. Another key development in Nora’s crisis is her previous connotations of men. Because Nora’s mother was never present in her upbringing, her father doted on her every need and treated her like his â€Å"little doll†. Similarly, in her present marriage, Nora’s husband Torvald refers to her as his â€Å"little songbird†, and feels that she shouldn’t be expected to have any care, opinion, or worry in the world. NORA: You have never understood me. I have been greatly wronged, Torvald – first by Papa and then by you . . . You have never loved me. You just thought it was pleasant to be in love with me . . . When I was at home with Papa he gave me his opinions on everything. So I had the same opinions as he did. If I disagreed with him I concealed the fact because he wouldn’t have liked it. He called me his doll-child, and he playedShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of A Dolls House Essay1108 Words   |  5 PagesWrite a paper that explains how history is portrayed in a particular play emphasizing what a certain historical event, personage, or situation enables the playwright to communicate. Discuss what effect the playwrights transformation of historical reality has on an audience. Henrik Ibsens widely regarded work, A Dolls House, was first introduced in 1879 as a theatrical presentation of human rights. Today, Ibsens work remains as such, although often conveyed as more focused on womens rightsRead MorePatriarchy in Ibsens A Dolls House647 Words   |  3 Pagesultimately shattered in Henrik Ibsens play A Dolls House. Because Torvald has too much vested in his patriarchal role as sole provider, he cannot bear the fact that his wife Nora borrowed money on the sly to help him. Her act represented a breach of social codes, a subversion of the gender norms that Torvald and his sympathizers have come to count on for their identity and worldview. Whereas Nora feels it fully natural for a human being to help another, Torvald views Noras act as a violation ofRead More Symbolism in A Doll’s House Essay949 Words   |  4 PagesHenrik Ibsen’s â€Å"A Doll’s House† is a controversial play focusing on the marriage of Nora and Torvald Helmer. The play is filled with symbols that represent abstract ideas and concepts. These symbols effectively illustrate the inner conflicts that are going on between the characters. Henrik Ibsen’s use of symbolism such as the Christmas tree, the locked mailbox, the Tarantella, Dr. Rank’s calling cards, and the letters allows him to give a powerful portrayal to symbolize aspects of characters andRead MoreHenrik Ibsens A Dolls House1489 Words   |  6 Pagesaudience in, create a believable situation, and illicit a particular response. The play â€Å"A Doll’s House† by Henrik Ibsen provides an excellent example for analysis, with each component strongly supported. Often the first, and most obvious, component that can be observed when reading drama is the point of view that it is written from. Point of view determines the perspective from which the story is told. In a play there is typically not a narrator, leaving the audience to witness the action andRead More A Dolls House: The Analysis of Nora and Her Case of Leaving Her Family.1074 Words   |  5 PagesIn Henrik Ibesens play A Doll House, Nora Helmer struggles with telling her husband, Torvald Helmer, the truth about a loan she receives for them to go to Italy when he was sick. Consequently, when Torvald learns of the news he instantly insults Nora and declares that she has ruined [his] happiness (Ibesen 93). However, when Torvald tries to dismiss his insults after receiving a note that her contract was revoked, she does not accept his apologizes and decides to leave Torvald and her childrenRead MoreShakespeare s A Doll s House Essay1352 Words   |  6 PagesThe Performance of Gende r in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House It can be said that the sound of Nora Helmer slamming the door behind her as she leaves her husband and children in pursuit of self-actualization is one of the most famous in theatre history. The journey the characters in A Doll’s House take in order to build to this powerful moment is a fascinating one. Countless scholars have analyzed aspects of Ibsen’s famous play; some have examined the complicated marriage between Nora and Torvald Helmer,Read MoreNora Helmer versus Hedda Gabler in Male Dominated Society Essay1101 Words   |  5 Pagessubmit to the image, but certain individual stands against it. In Henrik Ibsen’s stories of Hedda Gabler and A Doll House, we witness examples of a single individual against the overwhelming society. Nora left her family and marriage behind to become an independent individual without the control of men; whereas, Hedda Gabler choose death as her ultimate solution when she was threatened to be control by man. Ibsen’s A Doll’s House was written in 1879 in a style of realism, which depicted life moreRead MoreA Critics Opinion of a Dolls House1743 Words   |  7 PagesCritic’s Opinion of A Doll’s House In Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House many views could be seen from both sides of the gender world. Critics will argue about the true meaning of the story and why Ibsen wrote the story. The main points of the play that critics discuss are sexuality i.e. feminism, the wrong doing of the father figure, and spiritual revolution. I believe these critics are each right in their own way from my understanding of the play and their ideas about the play. Sexuality or, in theRead MoreEssay about The Rebellion of Nora in Ibsens A Dolls House1357 Words   |  6 PagesThe Rebellion of Nora in A Dolls House      Ã‚  Ã‚   A Dolls House, by Henrik Ibsen, was written during a time when the role of woman was that of comforter, helper, and supporter of man. The play generated great controversy due to the fact that it featured a female protagonist seeking individuality.  Ã‚   A Dolls House was one of the first plays to introduce woman as having her own purposes and goals. The heroine, Nora Helmer, progresses during the course of the play eventually to realize that she mustRead More Symbolism in A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen Essay example2771 Words   |  12 PagesSymbolism in A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen      Ã‚   A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen is perhaps one of the most hotly debated plays to come out of the 19th century.   The 19th century continued the process of the demystification that began with the Enlightenment.   Because of the discoveries of the Enlightenment, humans could no longer be sure about their place in the universe.   This, of course, had an impact on the theater.   The movement toward realism, which, like the 19th century in general

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Feminism before the 20th Century Essay - 2095 Words

Feminism before the 20th Century For generations, women had been subjected to men. Women had no saying in what was going on around them, to what they wanted their lives to be, or even when it came to their bodies. Many women have raised their voices to protest against this subjugation, sometimes at great personal risk. Such is the French case of Marie Gouze(1748-93), who under the name Olympe de Gouges, wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizen. In this document Marie advocated for civic equality, as well as equal participation in political rights, womens right to vote, and equal education. She presented this document to Marie Antoinette in 1789. Unfortunately, the proposal was rejected and Marie was condemned to the†¦show more content†¦New opportunities were opening up for women, but equality in the work place was far from being achieved. Women were mostly hired for seasonal, or temporary jobs, and were very underpaid. Even labor union kept women out, because their standards would go down by letting such underpaid workers, as women were. When it came to security, womens jobs were the most insecure. They where the first to go, if there was the need to fire employees. So throughout the 20th century women continued fighting to archive equality in the work place. In 1933 the National Industrial Recovery Act, which designed measure to expand employment opportunities and safeguard jobs, was passed and with it women benefit from wage raise, shortest working hours, and a number of employment opportunities. However the fight continued since this provision only applied to the areas of trade and industry, so women working as clerks or domestic where not cover. Women saw a great payoff when the National Labor Relations Board was founded, since it gave women workers, specially textile workers, the right to deal as a collective for better wages, and working conditions. An even better reward for this continuous fight was the Equal Pay Act, which established equal pay for men and women for the same kind of job, and prohibited discrimination practices against women. This act was further broader withShow MoreRelatedLiberal, Conservative, and Socialist Ideals vs. Feminism Before the 20th Century2177 Words   |  9 PagesSocialist Ideals vs. Feminism before the 20th Century   Tales from the beyond, story one: a parent binds his baby girls feet in China, so it will not grow more than five to six inches because small feet in women are a sign of elegance; story two: a wife is burned alive in India, so she can accompany her husband in death. Are these stories? No, things like this really happened in the past. They are part of the reason that contributed to the birth of the Womens Movement in the 19th century. This movementRead MoreThe First Wave Of Women950 Words   |  4 Pageswhom have influenced and helped spread change for feminism. The first wave feminists (from the 1800’s to the early 20th century) started numerous organizations to help and support women’s rights and also helped in part of passing legislations that further aid the rights granted to women. Some of the most important first wave feminists include Susan B. Anthony and Alice Paul. The second wave feminists (from the mid 20th century to late 20th century) helped further rights granted to women from the householdRead MoreGender Inequality Between Men And Women1094 Words   |  5 Pagespower is in the hands of men and many aspects of women’s life controlled by men. However, 20th century started to change everything and we saw lots of change even now. Society began to change their thinking. In future, I believe that we will see gender equality, not inequality. My paper will talk about the feminism, eliminating the gender gap in earnings, how we can stand against any violence. All the centuries, women want their right to do anything. They do not want to depend on their husbands. ForRead MoreFeminism And The American Equal Rights Association1550 Words   |  7 PagesDuring the late 19th and early 20th century in America, the rise of Feminism challenged the traditional gender roles. The female authors of this time period represented realistic aspects of women’s struggles, which often reflected limitations from society and their own lives. The three female authors who advocated women’s struggles in their writings were Sojourner Truth, Willa Cather, and Edith Wharton. In the speech to the American Equal Rights Association, Truth reveals that women do not have rightsRead MoreFeminism; the Awakening868 Words   |  4 PagesThe Emergence of Feminism In the 19th century women were supposed live by concept of Republican Motherhood. Republican Motherhood is the idea that American women had a few main roles, to stay in their homes, to train their children to be good American citizens and to follow the demands of their husbands. This reinforced the idea of that a domestic womens life should be separate from the public world of men. Feminism is a collection of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equalRead MoreFeminism Feminism is the public support for or recommendation of womens rights on the grounds of700 Words   |  3 PagesFeminism Feminism is the public support for or recommendation of womens rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men. In a more simple way of stating it, women rights equivalent to those of men. Before suffrage begun, women were strictly to act as women should, or what they were expected to act like. They were expected to take care of the children, cook, and clean. Not only were they supposed to do house work, but they also couldn’t vote or own any property. On AugustRead MoreThree Waves Of Feminism Essay1406 Words   |  6 PagesA Brief History Of The Three Waves Of Feminism Seeing the title the first thing that comes to our mind is â€Å" What is Feminism†? feminism is a belief where a woman s needs and their contributions are valued. It’s based on the social, political and economical equality for women. It is also described as a movement. Where women are fighting for their right since evolution. Now, what about the word â€Å"wave†? The word â€Å"wave† which categorizes feminism because it illustrates the forward motion- of theRead MoreThe History of Feminism Essay750 Words   |  3 PagesThe History of Feminism The definition of feminism is very elusive. Maybe because of its ever-changing historical meaning, it’s not for certain whether there is any coherence to the term feminism or if there is a definition that will live up to the movement’s variety of adherents and ideas. In the book â€Å"No Turning Back,† author Estelle Freedman gives an accurate four-part definition of the very active movement: â€Å"Feminism is a belief that women and men are inherently part of equal worth. Because mostRead MoreFeminism And The Feminist Movement Essay1292 Words   |  6 Pagesthe early 20th century. Over all, the push for women s suffrage and rights was strong, but further enhanced by leaders like Alice Paul and Jane Addams. The idea of equal rights for all was further scrutinized and contested after civil rights were granted to former slaves. Women began to push for similar equality as illustrated through the feminist movement. The feminist movement became very large and sprouted subsections, one being a subsection of feminism known as social feminism. This branchRead MoreFeminism is simply a sociological theory, which states that men and women are equal. Feminism is900 Words   |  4 PagesFeminism is simply a sociological theory, which states that men and women are equal. Feminism is mainly concerned with giving rights to women by highlighting the numerous ways in which women have rendered to society. Feminist theorists believe in the social, political, and economic equality of genders and believe that each has his own rights as well as duties. They strive to give the oppressed women their full rights that are being taken every day. History of Feminism Feminism first started in

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Blue Boxing Essay Example For Students

Blue Boxing Essay To quote Karl Marx, blue boxing has always been the most noble form of phreaking. As opposed to such things as using an MCI code to make a free fone call, which is merely mindless pseudo-phreaking, blue boxing is actual interaction with the Bell System toll network. It is likewise advisable to be more cautious when blue boxing, but the careful phreak will not be caught, regardless of what type of switching system he is under. In this part, I will explain how and why blue boxing works, as well as where. In later parts, I will give more practical information for blue boxing and routing information. To begin with, blue boxing is simply communicating with trunks. Trunks must not be confused with subscriber lines (or customer loops) which are standard telefone lines. Trunks are those lines that connect central offices. Now, when trunks are not in use (i.e., idle or on-hook state) they have 2600Hz applied to them. If they are two-way trunks, there is 2600Hz in both directions. When a trunk IS in use (busy or off-hook state), the 2600Hz is removed from the side that is off-hook. The 2600Hz is therefore known as a supervisory signal, because it indicates the status of a trunk; on hook (tone) or off-hook (no tone). Note also that 2600Hz denoted SF (single frequency) signalling and is in-band. This is very important. In-band means that is within the band of frequencies that may be transmitted over normal telefone lines. Other SF signals, such as 3700Hz are used also. However, they cannot be carried over the telefone network normally (they are out-of-band and are therefore not able to be taken advantage of as 2600Hz is. Back to trunks. Lets take a hypothetical phone call. You pick up your fone and dial 1+806-258-1234 (your good friend in Amarillo, Texas). For ease, well assume that you are on #5 Crossbar switching and not in the 806 area. Your central office (CO) would recognize that 806 is a foreign NPA, so it would route the call to the toll centre that serves you. For the sake of accuracy here, and for the more experienced readers, note that the CO in question is a class 5 with LAMA that uses out-of-band SF supervisory signalling. Depending on where you are in the country, the call would leave your toll centre (on more trunks) to another toll centre, or office of higher rank. Then it would be routed to central office 806-258 eventually and the call would be completed. IllustrationACO1-TC1TC2-CO2-BA. youCO1=your central officeTC1.. your toll office.TC2.. toll office in Amarillo.CO2.. 806-258 central office.B. your friend (806-258-1234)In this situation it would be realistic to say that CO2 uses SFin-band (2600Hz) signalling, while all the others use out-of-band signalling (3700Hz). If you dont understand this, dont worry. I am pointing this out merely for the sake of accuracy. The point is that while you are connected to 806-258-1234, all those trunks from YOUR central office (CO1) to the 806-258 central office (CO2) do *NOT* have 2600Hz on them, indicating to the Bell equipment that a call is in progress and the trunks are in use. Now lets say youre tired of talking to your friend in Amarillo, so you send a 2600Hz down the line. This tone travels down the line to your friends central office (CO2) where it is detected. However, that CO thinks that the 2600Hz is originating from Bell equipment, indicating to it that youve hung up, and thus the trunks are once again idle (with 2600Hz present on them). But actually, you have not hung up, you have fooled the equipment atyour friends CO into thinking you have. Thus,it disconnects him and resets the equipment to prepare for the next call. All this happens very quickly (300-800ms for step-by-step equipment and 150-400ms for other equipment). When you stop sending 2600Hz (after about a second), the equipment thinks that another call is coming towards on hook, no tone off hook. .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 , .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .postImageUrl , .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 , .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826:hover , .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826:visited , .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826:active { border:0!important; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826:active , .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826 .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ubde4eefaeb8602902088cac5dd022826:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Music Videos Debate Essay Now that youve stopped sending 2600Hz, several things happen:1) A trunk is seized.2) A wink is sent to the CALLING end from the CALLED end indicating thatthe CALLED end (trunk) is not ready to receive digits yet.3) A register is found and attached to the CALLED end of the trunk withinabout two seconds (max).4) A start-dial signal is sent to the CALLING end from the CALLED endindicating that the CALLED end is ready to receive digits. Now, all of this is pretty much transparent to the blue boxer. All hereally hears when these four things happen is a . So,seizure of a trunk would go something like this:1 Send a 2600Hz2 Terminate 2600Hz after 1-2 secs.3 beepkerchunkOnce this happens, you are connected to a tandem that is ready to obey yourevery command. The next step is to send signalling information in order toplace your call. For this you must simulate the signalling used byoperators and automatic toll-dialing equipment for use on trunks. There aremainly two systems, DP and MF. However, DP went out with the dinosaurs, soIll only discuss MF signalling. MF (multi-frequency) signalling is thesignalling used by the majority of the inter- and intra-lata network. It isalso used in international dialing known as the CCITT no.5 system.MF signals consist of 7 frequecies, beginning with 700Hz and separated by200Hz. A different set of two of the 7 frequencies represent the digits 0thru 9, plus an additional 5 special keys. T he frequencies and uses are asfollows:Frequencies (Hz) DomesticIntl- 700+900 11 700+110022 900+110033 700+130044 900+1300551100+130066 700+150077 900+1500881100+1500991300+150000 700+1700ST3p Code 1 900+1700STp Code 11100+1700KPKP11300+1700ST2p KP21500+1700STST The timing of all the MF signals is a nominal 60ms, except for KP, whichshould have a duration of 100ms. There should also be a 60ms silent periodbetween digits. This is very flexible however, and most Bell equipment willaccept outrageous timings. In addition to the standard useslisted above, MF pulsing also has expanded usages known as expandedinband signalling that include such things as coin collect, coin return,ringback, operator attached, and operator attached, and operatorreleased. KP2, code 11, and code 12 and the ST_ps (STart primes all havespecial uses which will be mentioned only briefly here.To complete a call using a blue box once seizure of a trunk has beenaccomplished by sending 2600Hz and pausing for the , onem ust first send a KP. This readies the register for the digits that follow.For a standard domestic call, the KP would be followed by either 7 digits(if the call were in the same NPA as the seized trunk) or 10 digits (if thecall were not in the same NPA as the seized trunk). Exactly like dialingnormal fone call. Following either the KP and 7 or 10 digits, a STart issent to signify that no more digits follow. Example of a complete call:1 Dial 1-806-258-12342 wait for a call-progress indication (such as ring,busy,recording,etc.)3 Send 2600Hz for about 1 second.4 Wait for about ll-progress indication (such as ring,busy,recording,etc.)5 Send KP+305+994+9966+STThe call will then connect if everything was done properly. Note that if acall to an 806 number were being placed in the same situation, the are codewould be omitted and only KP + seven digits + ST would be sent.Code 11 and code 12 are used in international calling to requestcertain types of operators. KP2 is used in international ca lling to route acall other than by way of the normal route, whether for economic orequipment reasons. STp, ST2p, and ST3p (prime, two prime, and three prime)are used in TSPS signalling to indicate calling type of call (such ascoin-direct dialing.It all started here. Exodus

Friday, April 10, 2020

Juvenile Drug Use Essays - Drug Culture, Psychiatric Diagnosis

Juvenile Drug Use A drug is a substance that alters the mind, body or both. Drug use is the increasing problem among teenagers in colleges today. Most drug use begins in the preteen and teenage years, these years most crucial in the maturation process (Shiromoto 5). During these years adolescents are faced with difficult tasks of discovering their self identity, clarifying their sexual roles, assenting independence, learning to cope with authority and searching for goals that would give their lives meaning. Drugs are readily, adolescents are curious and venerable, and there is peer pressure to experiment, and there us a temptation to escape from conflicts. The use of drugs by teenagers is the result of a combination of factors such as peer pressure, curiosity, and availability. Drugs addiction among adolescents in turn lead to depression and suicide (Shiromoto 12). One of the most important reasons of teenage drug usage is peer pressure. Peer pressure makes drugs seem popular, makes you have a fear of being an outcast, and since everyone is doing it, it is the cool thing to doright? Wrong. Peer pressure represents social influences that effect adolescents, it can have a positive, or a negative effect, depending on person's social group and one can follow one path of the other. We are greatly influenced by the people around us. In today's colleges, drugs are very common; peer pressure usually is the reason for their usage (www.nodrugs.com 1). If the people in your social group use drugs, there will be pressure a direct or indirect pressure from them. A person may be offered to try drugs, which is direct pressure. Indirect pressure is when someone sees everyone around him using drugs and he might think that there is nothing wrong with using drugs. People might try drugs just to fit in the social norms, even if a person had no intentions of using drugs one might do it just to be considered cool by his friends. Today drugs are considered to be an acceptable social phenomenon by many teenagers. If parents are involved with children on a day-to-day basis, they will more than likely know when the child starts to take drugs because of the big changes going on in their lives. There are many positive alternatives to drugs, so drugs are not the only fun and cool things to do (www.nodrugs.com 2). Before children descend into drug addiction a whole array of signals normally appears, suggesting the family is in trouble. Few people are equipped to recognize these signs (Henican 181). Stresses of everyday living is just too great a burden to bear alone; they feel like they need a protective shell, that invisible physic capsule they can hide inside. Most high school students said that some time in their lives they have used alcohol, drugs, or tobacco. More than seventy one percent of high school students have tried cigarettes, forty two percent have smoked marijuana, twenty seven percent had a cigar, seven percent tried cocaine, and eighty percent had a drink of alcohol (Dryfoos 26). In today's colleges the availability and variety of drugs is widespread. There is a demand for drugs and the supply is plentiful. Since drugs are so easy accessible, a natural interest in them may develop. A person may hear about drugs experiences, on reactions of drug usage, such as Hey the weed that he sold us was cool, I got stoned man. This response will create a sense of curiosity and may convince the person to try drugs themselves. Many teenagers today believe that the first use of drugs is safe. However, although there is no instant addiction with the first try, teenagers tend to experiment further (Teen Drug Abuse 3). Soon a person could actively seek the euphoric effects of drugs. Drug addiction is the result of intense preoccupation with the dicer to experience the mental and bodily changes with drug use. The final and the most disastrous stage are when a person needs drugs in order to function adequately. Therefore, availability, curiosity, and experimentation could result in drug addiction among teenagers (Teen Drug Abuse 6). One of the most devastating side effects of drug addiction and abuse is depression. Depression is the

Monday, March 9, 2020

buy custom Business Laws essay

buy custom Business Laws essay A contract is a legal agreement entered into by two parties, and is enforceable by law. Such an agreement is made when one party indicates the willingness to engage in or desist from engaging in any activity with a view of getting the approval of the other party (Koffman Macdonald, 2007).The party making the offer is known as the promisor, while the party accepting the offer the promisee. In this case, all the promises forming the consideration for the two parties becomes the agreement. Any agreement that is not enforceable by law is known as void agreement (Koffman Macdonald, 2007). Contract Law in Malaysia is governed by the Contracts Act 1950 and for an agreement to qualify to be a contract, there must be (1) an agreement between the parties involved, (2) created responsibilities between the parties, and (3) it must be legally enforceable. There are three categories of contract according to Malaysian Contracts Act 1950 (Contracts Act 1950). These are; written contracts that requ ire written evidence, oral and simple contracts. Elements of a Contract For any agreement to be considered a valid contract, the following elements need to be considered by the two parties involved: 1. There must be an Offer A contact can only exist when a specific offer has been unconditionally proposed and accepted. The offer can be issued in writing, orally, or impliedly through actions as long as the mode of offer or acceptance is in line with the statutory requirements (Sinnadurai Sinnadurai, 2003). For example, contract involving sale of land need to be written to have title deed. The communication of the offer, acceptance, or revocation should be made known to the party to whom it is made for it to be complete. An offer according to the Contract Act 1950 is an expression of willingness by the promisor to contract on a particular set of terms with legal intention that if accepted, will be bounding. It must involve the promisor and the promisee and be legally enforceable (Dass, 2005). Offers can be unilateral where only one party makes the proposal and the other party is not obligated to make a proposal. It can also be bilateral where the two parties makes a promise such as in a case of sale of a h ouse where one offers a house and the other party promises some amount of money. 2. Acceptance For a contract to be valid there must be an expression of unequivocal and unconditional agreement by the two parties to all the terms contained in the offer (Sinnadurai Sinnadurai, 2003). Acceptance can be done orally or in writing and is legally binding if done by the party to whom the offer is made, if express by word spoken or written, or if implied by actions showing compliance. Acceptance must also be absolute, using the prescribed mode such as by fax, for the offer communicated only, done within the given time frame before the offer period lapses and done with an intent to fulfill the contract. Contract Act 1950 also provides that a revocation of acceptance done any time before the communication of approval is complete (Law of Contract in Malaysia, 2009). 3. Intention to Create a Legal Relationship There must be an intention between the two parties to create legal relations for the agreement to be a contract; otherwise, the arrangement is considered an informal social agreement (Dass, 2005). For example, if student A offers student B lift to Kuala Lumpur city, then B considers reciprocating the cost of fuel but fails, there is no obligatory contract under which A can B, since the offer to fuel the car was not made with the intention of being legally binding. However, commercial arrangements are usually perceived to be intended to be binding contracts (Arjunan, K. (2008). 4. Lawful Consideration Consideration denotes something of value that parties agree to exchange when signing a contract and must not be a tangible or monetary item, but can include desisting taking an action that a party has the legal right to do. The presence o a consideration in the undertaking indicates the commitment of parties to make a legal relationship (Dass, 2005: Richards, 2006). This is because the law does not recognize agreements without something in return. 5. Capacity to Contract Capacity to contract refers to a partys capability to enter into a contract. Inability to contract may be as a result of the persons lack of authority to contract, mental incompetence, and the party being an infant. A contract is not binding if a mentally impaired party enters into an agreement without understanding the nature and consequences of the transaction (Arjunan, 2008: Richards, 2006). Mental incapacity may be because of developmental disability, insanity, senility, and drug or alcohol intoxication. In case one is acting on behalf of another party, the person must be fully authorized to reach agreements and sign the contracts; otherwise, the contract will be invalid. 6. Legal purpose The purpose of the contract must be in itself legal, not conflicting with the public policy for it to be binding. This means that a contract that obligates a party to engage in an illegal activity or has illegal objective is not binding to either party (Arjunan, 2008). For example, a contract that requires a party to damage the property of another individual is illegal and criminal and cannot be enforced. Three Factors in Section 14 and Effects of each Contract According to Contract Act 1955 section 14, consent on a particular issue is considered free when not achieved by coercion, falsification, undue influence, mistake, or fraud. There should be no force or coercion to make the contract. The three factors to be discussed in this case are coercion and duress, use of undue influence and misrepresentation (Sinnadurai Koh, 1979). 1. Coercion and Duress Coercion is the compulsion of a party to enter into a contract through threatening to commit or committing any act prohibited by the Penal Code. This intimidation may include illegitimate detaining or threatening to detain the person or property with the purpose of making the party to enter into an agreement. Exposing a person under duress through either physical confinement or psychological torture and threats is part of coercive conduct to induce the victim party to accept the offer. There should also be freedom in contract formulation, which entail positive beginning that encompasses liberty of either parties to make own choices, freedom to determine possible exchange, bargaining terms, and to enter a contract on mutual approval. It also involves freedom from governmental restrictions or intrusion while engaging in these agreements and freedom of a party assess the ability of the government to implement the agreements. An example of in which individuals are forced to enter contrac ts is the software agreements where the customer is not given room to negotiate the terms when installing the software in their personal computers. Failure to acknowledge (click wrap) simply means no installation (Rafiei1 Manap, 2011) Effects of Coercion and Duress The effects of using coercion and duress to enter into a contract is that the law does not recognize such contracts, since the victim has been unwillingly compelled by the stronger party to enter into the contract (Cheong, 2010). The coercing party is bound to lose the presumed benefits of the contract. In the absence of the free consent by either party, the contract is considered void or voidable. However, the coerced, pressured, or forced party needs to seek legal relief based on the conditions under which the consent was inappropriately obtained. The relief is granted by court grounds that it was under duress, undue influence, or was unconscionable. Section 14 of Malaysian Contract Act 1950, states that a contract is voidable if entered into through coercion. Consent is presumed not to have been given in the presence of coercion, undue influence, fraud, or misreppresentation. 2. Undue Influence A contract is considered a product of undue influence in a scenario where one of the parties holds dominant position over the other party, and uses that power to gain prejudiced benefit over the other (Cheong, 2010). A person is considered to be in a position to dominate the other if holding ostensible authority economically, physically, and socially over the other, or when there is an existing fiduciary relation between the two parties. In this case, the powerful party uses the advantage to influence the other into a contract. Undue influence also occurs when contract is signed with a person whose mental capacity is incapacitated temporarily or permanently, either by age, illness, or by mental or bodily distress (Cheong, 2010).The effect of such contracts is that they are considered void. Equally, if a party in a dominant position enters into a contract with another because of the influence and the transaction appears biased and unconscionable, the cost of determining whether undue influence took place will be upon the dominant party. 3. Misrepresentation Contract can also be misrepresented when there is a positive assertion into the contract in a way not intended or contained by the information from the person making it. It also occurs when there is unintentional breach of duty, which gives an undue advantage to the party committing it, or any person claiming under him by deceiving another to his prejudice, or to the prejudice of a party claiming under him. Misrepresentation also takes place when a party innocently makes a mistake on an item that is the focus of the agreement. Such contracts are declared voidable if the misrepresentation let to the consent of the party (Cheong, 2010). Recommendation for amendment of Malaysian law Contracts Act 1950 of Malaysia unfortunately has no provision for the online environment. Currently, more online operation has taken root all over the world where many people transact business via the internet, thus need to be recognized by law, though with caution and particular exceptions to determine whether there was undue influence when entering the contract. In the case of software online installation in a personal computer, a person who enters into a contract through the internet and makes a click wrap is considered not under coercion, duress, or force according to the Contract Act 1955 Ss14, 15 and the contract is legally enforceable (Rafiei1 Manap, 2011). However, the Act 1955 should be amended to safeguard commercial contracts via the internet that are presumed to be biased in favor of one party. This is because one can be coerced to crick wrap a deal in case of fraud giving the other party advantage or because of undue influence. Conclusion A contract is a legal agreement that involves two parties, the promisor and the promise, and is enforceable by law. Contracts are made when one party indicates the willingness to engage in or desist from engaging in any activity with a view of getting the approval of the other party (Richards, 2006). In Malaysia, the law of contract is governed by the Contract Act 1950, which stipulates that contracts needs to have an agreement between the parties involved, create responsibilities between the parties and must be legally enforceable. The elements that validate a contract that must be considered by the two parties include; the presence of an offer, acceptance, the intention by the parties to create a legal relationship, presence of lawful consideration, capacity of either party to contract and must have legal purpose. Free consent is an important element of a contract according to Contract Act 1955 section 14 that requires that there be no use of force to compel any party to enter into an agreement. The three factors discussed include coercion, misrepresentation, and undue influence. The paper also gives recommendations on the amendments to be considered regarding contracts that are made via the internet. Buy custom Business Laws essay

Saturday, February 22, 2020

If industrial robots get cheap enough, they may replace almost all Essay

If industrial robots get cheap enough, they may replace almost all unskilled factory worker in the future. discuss the benefits and costs of this to society - Essay Example There are certain estimations, which indicate that, by year 2025, robots would have taken almost 50 percent of the total jobs in the United States. The impact of industrial robots on employment patterns would vary amongst different industries, and there are reasons to believe that the automotive industry, food services industry and the manufacturing industry would be amongst the ones that would be impacted the most. In these industries, robots would replace as much as 95 percent of the total workers (Skaar & Castillo, pp. 63-64, 2012). These three industries, combined, would replace more than 44 million workers. In fact, calculations also indicate that by the end of 2012, the number of industrial robots, within US alone, would increase to the level of 1.2 million. More importantly, despite the dismissal performance of economy and recessionary pressures, there has been a 20 percent average annual increase in the employment of industrial robots. By the year 2013, there would be one rob ot worker for every 6000 people living on this planet and there are reasons to believe that, within a few decades, the world would have more robots that people (Briggle, et al., pp. 104-106, 2011). Proponents of replacing human workers with robots believe that this would mark a new era in improving the quality of living of people. Life on this planet would become more comfortable, and industries would be able to reduce their costs, drastically, thus allowing consumers as well as industries to gain from the savings (Skaar & Castillo, pp. 63-64, 2012). On the other hand, proponents of these ideas believe that it will only increase the problems in developing and third world countries of the world, which are plagued, already, by problems of high inflation, poverty, and unemployment. In many of these countries, a significant chunk of people is employed in the manufacturing sector, performing